just want to update on some of the statements made before and actual technical tests that I found in notebook check sources.
It seams like temporal dithering is not used by apple on new macbooks. The only cause is - PWM backlight flicker. So on macbook air m1 or m2, on lower brightness you will get very high HZ, on higher brightness very low HZ, chose which type of eye strain you prefer 🙂 Generally, there will be no solution. Only real solution - get monitor without CCFL (pwm). I think decent monitors these days do not use it anymore, but please correct me if I'm wrong. (Good means DELL line for example ~300 usd)
Apple uses PWM at a very high frequency of 117 kHz for brightness up to about 50% (about 160 cd/m2). Above that, we measure some slight flickering at 60 Hz, but this only shows some very small brightness variations (with or without the charger). Neither should lead to any difficulties for more than very few users.
Macbook air M1
Display - An IPS panel without temporal dithering
We refer you to our review of the basic version for information on the display. In the comments section, we were asked about temporal dithering (it is used to create the illusion of more color depth). So, we examined the IPS panel of the Air M2 with a microscope and created a slow-motion recording with 240 images per second. While we were able to detect temporal dithering, for example, in the current MacBook Pro 16 with the Mini-LED panel in some particular gray color tones, this was neither the case in the old MacBook Air M1 nor in the new MacBook Air M2.
Temporal Dithering Tested on Macbook air M1, M2