We know that what is causing the most problems are PWM and temporal dithering.
Dithering is used by displays to reproduce colors that they cannot show on screen by rapidly switching pixel colors.
The problem is most of the operating systems/graphics card give you no option to disable this.
So my idea is, first of all let's choose a screen with no PWM to rule out this issue.
This screen was hurting my eyes at the beginning.
What I've done to make it usable is:
0) Make sure that the screen is below eye level, and that the brightness is matching the light from the environment.
1) Set a warm color profile, or night filter.
2) Set display saturation to 0. Your screen is now black and white.
3) Evaluate if the screen is safe now. If yes, increase saturation by 2 or 5 and use it for some days.
Eventually your eyes will adapt to the screen. Repeat these steps until you find the highest level of saturation that gives you no symptoms. If the screen is not usable in black and white, the problem is not caused by colors, and there are other reasons why the screen hurts your eyes.
Personally, I'm very sensitive to the modern trash over-saturated displays. My Xiaomi Mi 10 is usable with anti-flicker mode and the color profile "vivid" disabled. My M1 Macbook pro is usable with the "ROMM RGB" color profile. I know how uncomfortable it is to live with this problem and I hope that is method can help someone, if yes please let me know.