For most of us the problem began with 1609 "Anniversary Edition", which was - to my knowledge - when the back-end graphical changes necessary for the "composition layer" were first rolled out, even though the composition layer wasn't actually available until "creator's update" some months later.
Complicating matters, even on known good OS'es some display cards or monitors triggered this same problem - back in the day, Radeon cards were worse than GeForce cards (which were known good all the way through the 9XX series).
As I type this, I am using Windows 7 64-bit on a 2011 Dell XPS with a GeForce 550M, and it's pretty comfortable for hours of use. But some apps trigger this problem also - chrome version 69 introduced massive strain, which seems better in later versions. Firefox around that time was also bad, but has smoothed out. I am currently typing this on Chrome 68, which gets harder and harder to stay with since websites declare it defunct on a daily basis. Much of the software I use won't continue to be viable past 2020 unless I update, and I haven't anywhere to update TO, other than LTSB 2015 which has its own problems.
Incidentally, the XBox One became problematic in the October 2018 update, which given that XBox lags pretty far behind Windows proper (it was on Windows 8 well past the release of Windows 10) may very well be the same graphics update that broke Windows in 2016. Again, I can roll the system back to the August 2018 version of the OS, but that won't be viable much longer.
We're all pretty desperate for a solution, and very much welcome your input. Thanks for joining. Happy to answer any/all questions.